Towards Algorithmic Fairness by means of Instance-level Data Re-weighting based on Shapley Values

Authors: Arnaiz-Rodríguez, A. , Oliver, N.

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Publication: ICLR 2024 Workshop on Data-centric Machine Learning Research (DMLR), 2024
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A preprint has been published at arXiv.2303.01928 on March 3rd, 2023.

Algorithmic fairness is of utmost societal importance, yet state-of-the-art large-scale machine learning models require training with massive datasets that are frequently biased. In this context, pre-processing methods that focus on modeling and correcting bias in the data emerge as valuable approaches. In this paper, we propose FairShap, a novel instance-level data re-weighting method for fair algorithmic decision-making through data valuation by means of Shapley Values. FairShap is model-agnostic and easily interpretable. It measures the contribution of each training data point to a predefined fairness metric. We empirically validate FairShap on several state-of-the-art datasets of different nature, with a variety of training scenarios and machine learning models and show how it yields fairer models with similar levels of accuracy than the baselines. We illustrate FairShap’s interpretability by means of histograms and latent space visualizations and perform a utility-fairness study. We believe that FairShap represents a promising direction in interpretable and model-agnostic approaches to algorithmic fairness that yield competitive accuracy even when only biased datasets are available.

Accepted at ICLR 2024 workshop on Data-centric Machine Learning Research (DMLR).

This work was supported by the European Commission under Horizon Europe Programme, grant number 101120237 - ELIAS, by Intel corporation, a nominal grant received at the ELLIS Unit Alicante Foundation from the Regional Government of Valencia in Spain (Convenio Singular signed with Generalitat Valenciana, Conselleria de Innovación, Industria, Comercio y Turismo, Dirección General de Innovación) and a grant by the Banc Sabadell Foundation.